Elegant Responsiveness

BIOL 101 STUDY GUIDE: QUIZ 6Quiz Preparation Tasks: 11 Your Answers and NotesA hormone that controls a person’s appetite might bind to ____________ proteins onmembranes in the brain.What is the typical site of origin of leptin hormone?In a normal person, what is the effect of elevated leptin levels in the bloodstream? 11.1 Life’s ResponsivenessIf a bog plant designed to catch insects proves unable to do so, the result will be starvationfor ____________.Why does a living thing need to be responsive?Based on Figure 11.5 in your text, what is the role of homeostatic mechanisms? When an environmental change shifts an organism’s internal chemistry toward a newstate, the organism’s response is to try to return its chemistry toward the original state.This tendency on the organism’s part is called ____________. 11.2 Responsiveness at the Transcriptional LevelIn the lactose operon of E. coli, what causes the repressor protein to change its shape?What is the resultant effect of the repressor protein’s shape change on lactose geneexpression?When there is little or no lactose present in a bacterium’s environment, then the gene forthe lactose transport enzyme is not trans-____________ and trans-____________.When there is little or no lactose present in a bacterium’s environment, then the gene forthe ____________ breakdown enzyme is not transcribed and translated.When there is little or no lactose present in a bacterium’s environment, then the____________ sequence in the DNA is bound by a repressor protein.When there is little or no lactose present in a bacterium’s environment, then the____________ operon is shut down.When the lactose operon is functioning, the bacterium can ____________ and break downlactose because ____________ and degradation genes are being transcribed. 11.3 Responsiveness at the Cellular LevelAfter a fly trips the sensory hair on the modified leaf of a Venus flytrap, what is the verynext step in the closing process?According to Figure 11.10, list the complete sequence of chemical events in the closure ofa Venus flytrap. In the Venus flytrap, the enzyme expansin helps to close the trap by loosening the____________ in the plant’s cell walls.Once ____________ has weakened the cellulose in the walls of the leaf trap cells,____________ rushes into the cells, expanding them and closing the trap. 11.5 Responsiveness at the Organ System LevelThe suprachiasmatic nuclei in the brain help the human nervous system to respond todaily alterations in ____________ and ____________. Page 1 of 4 BIOL 101 The ____________ ____________ enable the nervous system to respond to light/darkalterations through their stimulation of the pineal ____________ in the center of yourhead.The human nervous system responds to daily alterations in light and darkness byinfluencing melatonin levels in the ____________.The human nervous system responds to daily alterations in light and darkness bycontrolling how much melatonin reaches the ____________ nuclei.The human nervous system responds to daily alterations in light and darkness bymodulating the amount of ____________ secretion of the hypothalamus.The human nervous system responds to daily alterations in light and darkness byinfluencing ____________ levels secreted by the thyroid gland.The human nervous system responds to daily alterations in light and darkness by changingthe basal ____________ rate of your cells.One effect of melatonin on the suprachiasmatic nuclei is that it corrects the ____________of their day/night signaling system.What is the general effect of decreasing melatonin levels in the body?List 5 different reasons some individuals take a melatonin supplement. 12 Informational Continuity in OrganismsBiological information is preserved within the base sequence of what molecule? 12.1 Reproduction: Asexual and SexualAsexual ReproductionGive 3 examples of asexual reproduction methods in plants. What method of asexual reproduction does the Kalanchoe plant utilize?What method of asexual reproduction does the Iris plant utilize? Sexual ReproductionOne major advantage of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction is that in sexualreproduction, the population has increased ____________ variability.List 4 disadvantages of sexual reproduction. An “allele” is a specific alternate form of a ____________. Page 2 of 4 BIOL 101 Two slightly different versions of genes that lie at the exact same location on two separatehomologous chromosomes are called ____________.The phrase “two homologous sets of genes” can mean either two similar collections ofgenes from two separate ____________, or two similar collections of genes arranged ontwo complete sets of ____________. 12.2 Preparing Reproductive Cells for Multicellular OrganismsThe Challenge of Making a Reproductive CellA reproductive cell must differ genetically from other normal body cells in what criticalway (because it will soon fuse with another reproductive cell to form a new individual)? How Can This Ploidy Problem Be Solved?The specialized process that halves the number of chromosomes during sex cell formationis named ____________. Meiosis: A Triumph of Genome Reduction and Genetic VariabilityList in order 8 successive stages in the process of meiosis. The stage of meiosis in which the total number of chromosomes is reduced to half iscalled the reduction division. Which stage brings this about?For each of 23 pairs of chromosomes, the haploid egg cell will have either a maternal orpaternal chromosome, but it can be different for each pair. This explains how the processof meiosis contributes to genetic ____________. Differentiation of Reproductive Cells: A Biological ContextIn the human life cycle, diploid cells undergo a cell division process called____________. The resulting haploid cells later fuse during ____________, whichregenerates diploid cells.Early in your own development there exists a small subset of diploid cells called primarygerm cells. Where do they begin to develop? Where do they migrate to and lodge? Whatprocess will they later go through to become haploid? What will they be called rightbefore the first cell division in that process?Haploid secondary spermatocytes go on directly to complete meiosis, forming fourspermatid cells. These will eventually differentiate into sperm cells. The last stage ofmeiosis (that generates the spermatids) is called ____________. 12.3 Reproduction in HumansOogenesis in HumansA secondary oocyte that has undergone one meiotic division, a polar body, a fluid-filledcavity, and a spherical cluster of nutritive cells are all found within a structure called amature ____________.For about half of a woman’s monthly cycle, the hormone ____________ leaves thepituitary gland and, at the ovary, signals it to bring a more advanced ____________ tocomplete maturity. Page 3 of 4 BIOL 101 What hormone, suddenly secreted from the anterior pituitary gland in high levels, causesthe mature follicle to rupture from the ovary surface?The reproductive system uses the hormones ____________ and (later on) ____________to “think ahead.” They guide the preparation of the uterus for its role in supportingpregnancy.The mature egg, once ruptured from its follicle, is swept into the ____________ byfinger-like fringes called ____________.Normally a fertilized egg ends its journey temporarily by implanting within the wall ofwhat structure? Spermatogenesis and FertilizationSperm cell production occurs within the interior lining of the ____________.Using Figure 12.21, list in order the sequence of cell types that produce a sperm cell.Leydig cells, testosterone, LH hormone, and FSH hormone are all involved in the controlof ____________ cell production.List in order the structures by which a mature sperm cell travels from the epididymis tothe female’s reproductive tract.Penetration of the egg’ zona pellucida by the sperm cell is a process driven by the activityof a(n) ____________.The quintessential (most basic/most important) moment of fertilization of the egg by thesperm cell occurs when the male and female ____________ fuse together into onenucleus. 12.4 Reproduction Constrained, Part 1: Control of BirthWhich methods of birth control work by blocking sperm on its journey from the testicle tothe Fallopian tube?Which methods of birth control work by altering the hormonal chemistry of the femalepartner?Which of the following methods by which human conception can be postponed is leastinvasive of the complexity of human physiology? the rhythm method, the vaginal ring,oral contraceptives, tubal ligation, vasectomyName a birth control method that is primarily contraceptive and secondarily abortive in itseffects. 12.5 Reproduction Constrained, Part 2: Destruction of LifePhilosophers and Theologians Attempt to Define PersonhoodHow did the philosopher Plato set about to determine when human life begins? Whatterms did he use? When did he consider human life to begin?Aristotle, the “Father of Biology,” believed that a human being became a person once heor she exhibited what characteristic? Biologists Work to Define the Human IndividualOne excellent biological approach to determining when a mother and her conceptusbecome separate individuals is the detection of the first measurable ________________________ ____________ via electroencephalography.At about what time or stage of development does male genetic information from thesperm begins to be translated into protein products? (This is used by some to determinewhen a mother and her conceptus become separate individuals.) Destruction of Human Life Takes Various FormsWhat chemical combination is commonly used to terminate a pregnancy, killing the littleone?Briefly describe a common surgical procedure for aborting a little one. Page 4 of 4